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      大宋有多“富強”?這些奇怪現象告訴你

      時間:2019-06-03 12:37:57 編輯:中國歷史
      導讀: 大宋的三百年歷史,真是自豪與憋屈交織。 作經濟總量遠遠甩開漢唐,城市經濟空前繁榮的大宋,富宋名號從來響當當,那如宋詞般精美的文化,風情萬種的優雅生活,也叫多少歷史票

        大宋的三百年歷史,真是自豪與憋屈交織。

        作經濟總量遠遠甩開漢唐,城市經濟空前繁榮的大宋,“富宋”名號從來響當當,那如宋詞般精美的文化,風情萬種的優雅生活,也叫多少歷史票友們身不能至,恨不得一跺腳穿越去。可這么個財大氣粗的王朝,除了有些時段雄起過,大多時候卻腰桿子軟。北宋的時候,就是花錢買和平,“買”到半壁山河玩完后,南宋年間更是一跪到底,幾乎是跪著被人端了臨安城。煌煌史冊里的各種憋屈,讓人不住嘆氣。

        都說“落后就要挨打”,可這經濟高度繁榮的“富宋”,為何依然被打得慘?

        如果看懂了下面三樁怪事,這件嘆氣事,不但不難懂,相信,更有超越歷史的思考。

        “奇怪現象1”:城市繁榮,農村極窮

        “富宋”富得讓人眼熱之處,就是高度發達的城市經濟。但大宋上下,是不是都“富”到這程度?宋太宗也曾這么認為過,還當著群臣的面自夸過,卻被老直臣呂蒙正一怒打臉:“臣嘗見都城外數里,饑寒死者甚眾”——皇上您醒醒,大宋農民還饑寒交迫呢!

        到了號稱“盛世”的宋仁宗年間,在這個皇帝仁慈且滿朝“多名相”的年月里,司馬光韓琦王安石們筆下的北宋農村,卻更窮到觸目驚心:哪怕在富庶的東南地區,也常見大片良田荒蕪,青壯年勞動力大量逃亡,甚至還有人藏身山中,搖身變成“盜賊”。村村人煙稀少,只剩了滿眼老弱。翻翻他們的奏折甚至詩詞,說到農村,滿是悲慘哀嘆。

        堂堂“富宋”,農村真的窮到這地步?事實是,比這窮的更嚴重。

        宋朝“不遏兼并”,貧富分化本就嚴重。偏偏大宋冗官成堆“冗費”扎堆,還要大把歲幣買和平。農業稅賦也就大頭,除了正常的“兩稅”外,宋朝農民還要交“農具稅”“身丁錢”“牛皮錢”“鞋錢”等多種雜稅,多的要交幾十種。負擔十分沉重。

        而且以司馬光的說法“有一村多豪戶,稅不可督”。宋英宗《會記錄》統計:掌握宋朝百分之七十土地的有錢人,從來一分錢農業稅都不交,百分百的農業稅,壓在剩下的苦農民身上。照包拯的吶喊說,那真是“重率暴斂,日甚一日”,玩命的壓榨。

        如果說宋朝田賦坑農民,那么勞役專坑稍有錢的自耕農。哪家農民稍有點錢,立刻被官府盯上,委派組織勞役,服一次役就傾家蕩產。鬧的農民們“規避重役,土地不敢多耕”,“不敢多種一桑,多置一牛”。寧可過苦日子,也不敢有錢——勤勞致富?下一年就讓你破產。

        這坑爹的農業政策,造成了大宋奇怪的畸形繁榮,更讓兩宋吞夠了苦果:“兩宋的農民起義,三百多年里鬧了四百多次。為鎮壓農民起義,更要不斷擴軍。宋遼和平的一百多年里,大宋禁軍從一二十萬暴增到一百萬,“冗兵”成了巨大負擔,甚至越和平負擔越重。恐怖的惡性循環,糾纏兩宋幾百年。

        “奇怪現象2”:貿易賺錢,國家缺錢

        “富宋”另一樁亮點,就是發達的貿易。特別是《澶淵之盟》后的宋遼貿易,照近代許多學者夸耀,那真是賺海了去,甚至還有“宋朝戰場上沒打贏遼國,商場找找回來”的高論。賬面上的數字,也看上去大賺:僅一個河北榷場,每年就收入四十萬錢,直追宋朝“買和平”的歲幣數字。

        但奇怪的事情來了:宋遼貿易火熱持續幾十年,宋朝的銅錢,卻比賽跑似的往外奔。以至于“公私上下苦乏銅錢,百貨不通”,成了嚴重的“錢荒”現象。而宋朝大臣鄭階出使遼國,卻看到遼國“其給輿箱錢,皆中國(北宋)所鑄”。明明“賺”遼國的錢,怎么大宋的銅錢,全跑遼國來了?

        第一個原因,就是北宋的貿易利潤太水。比如每年賺遼國四十多萬錢的河北榷場,其賺到手的可不都是貨幣,而是包括了“銀錢、布、羊馬、橐駝”等各種物資,雖說總價四十萬錢,其實硬通貨極少。

        但大宋出去的銅錢,那就多了。因為遼國人不傻,別看生產落后,但會打貿易戰。

        遼國人的常見套路,就是誘使宋朝銅錢消費。宋朝商人到遼國境內貿易,入境就要被征收銅錢。還故意向大宋大量銷入奢侈品,比如遼國特產的北珠,就惹得北宋權貴瘋搶,到了宋徽宗時期,宋朝更是動用府庫儲備,年年遼國爆買北珠。以至于“中國(北宋)傾府庫以市無用之物”。另外遼國還動用資源優勢(鐵礦多),鑄造大量假鐵錢,兌換北宋真銅錢。于是“瀉中國之錢于北者,歲不知其幾何”——人家拿到手的,都是硬通貨。

        而遼國“貿易戰”更慣用套路,就是強買強賣。比如牛羊貿易,遼國賣給北宋的牛羊,大多是老病牲口,且點名要大宋拿錢買。宋神宗年間,大宋一次花四十萬緡錢從遼國采購數萬只“好羊”,運到汴京就成了一堆羊尸。不買行不?一聽“不買”,遼國就是各種變臉,動輒把“撕毀《澶淵之盟》”掛嘴上,總能叫大宋乖乖買。

        如此簡單粗暴的“貿易戰”套路,大宋就真忍著?聽聽宋仁宗原話:“先朝置互市以通有無,非為計利”。只要不打仗,吃虧咱就認了。于是多年貿易,表面賺錢的大宋,也就各種忍。結果就如大臣張方平嘆息:“百年之積,謂存空薄”——大宋的家底,就在這賬面賺錢的“貿易”里,活活被坑成空賬。

        “奇怪現象3”:前線著急,后方扯皮

        宋朝軍事的一大槽點,就是前線缺自主權。自從宋太宗以后,越是重大戰役,越要前線將領乖乖聽話,等著后方君臣們“討論”出結果再打。如此操作,也曾被贊譽為“先進的參謀制度”。可如果參考具體戰役,這“先進”的操作,卻是常見扯皮。

        比如宋真宗年間的靈州戰役,當時黨項首領李繼遷崛起于河套,重兵圍困西北重鎮靈州。之前多次挽救唐朝國運的靈州,此時也是宋朝戰略要沖。只要靈州在手,大宋就能掌控河套草原,國防意義不可估量。對這“丟不起”的堅城,宋真宗也高度重視,召集群臣集體商議,然后就變成左一個主張右一個主意。靈州守軍浴血奮戰數月,盼援軍盼到望眼欲穿。汴京城里的“精英重臣”們,卻只在桌上反復扯皮。

        扯皮到咸平四年(1001)十二月,宋真宗終于任命了王超為統帥,集結了六萬援軍。那是不是該火速出發救援了?別急,“怎么打”的問題,大臣們還沒吵出結果呢!然后又扯皮兩三個月,到次年四月,王超援軍還沒趕到靈州,浴血抗敵近半年的靈州城,卻已悲壯淪陷了。那是不是要打回來?卻見王超將軍腳底抹油,帶兵迅速跑回汴京——可不能自作主張打,得聽人家扯皮呀。

        再然后?再然后滿朝文武,就都失了聲,全當沒這回事。對大宋有著重大戰略意義的靈州城,就這么在扯皮中丟了。

        這種“前線著急,后方扯皮”的操作套路,在北宋一百多年歷史上,也絕非第一次。多少宋軍原本穩贏的仗,就在后方瞎指揮的扯皮里,活活“扯”成了大敗仗。甚至金軍南下,汴京被圍的危急時刻,北宋的朝中重臣們,還是不忘了扯皮,惹得汴京百姓編出“十不管”的民謠諷刺。接下來,就是汴京淪陷,靖康之恥,“扯”到半壁山河破碎。

        這樣一個發展畸形,妥協求安,且運轉嚴重低效的王朝,縱是擁有賬面上的“富”,依然,有富無強。

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