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      您的當前位置:中國歷史 > 戰史風云 > 長勺之戰魯國為何能取勝

      長勺之戰魯國為何能取勝

      時間:2018-06-07 09:31:31 編輯:中國歷史
      導讀: 長勺之戰魯國取勝的原因是什么?魯國為何能戰勝強大的齊國?長勺之戰是中國歷史上著名的以少勝多的戰役之一,是齊桓公爭霸史上一次少有的挫折,也是魯齊長期斗爭中魯國的一次罕見

        長勺之戰發生在周莊王十四年(公元前684年)的長勺,是春秋時期齊國和魯國的一場戰爭,最后魯國以少勝多,大敗齊國。長勺之戰是中國歷史上著名的以少勝多的戰役之一,給后人展示了古代戰役中可貴的軍事辯證法思想,更留下了“一而再,再而衰,三而竭”的著名故事。

        公元前770年,周王朝名存實亡,中國歷史也進入了諸侯崛起,爭奪勢力范圍的大國爭霸時代。而齊國和魯國都是西周年間重要的封地,兩國相鄰,在當時的動蕩局面下,不免發生各種矛盾,而矛盾沖突的激化,又勢必造成兩國間兵戎相見的結果,長勺之戰就是在這一特殊歷史條件下的產物。而且魯國還插手了齊國國君之位的爭奪戰,招來了后來繼位的齊桓公的怨恨,釀成了長勺之戰的爆發。

      長勺之戰魯國為何能取勝

        當時魯國執政的是魯莊公,他聽聞齊國大舉進攻,決定動員全國的力量,同齊軍一決勝負。就在魯莊公準備發兵應戰的時候,魯國有一位名叫曹劌的人認為當政者庸碌無能,未能遠謀。齊國比魯國國力強盛,雙方兵力懸殊,曹劌不忍心看到自己的國家遭受齊國軍隊的蹂躪,因而求見莊公,要求參與戰事。魯莊公最終同意了。

        魯軍在長勺迎來了齊軍,兩隊準備決戰,魯莊公正準備傳令擊鼓攻擊齊軍,曹劌制止了他,建議堅守陣地,以逸待勞。齊軍本來就有著強大的兵力,于是主動向魯國進攻,但是接二連三的出擊都在魯軍的防御下挫敗,并沒有達到先發制人的目的,反而使自己的兵力衰竭。

        曹劌一直在觀戰,而不急于作戰,在審時度勢之后,看準時機,立刻派魯兵出擊,于是魯國的軍隊一鼓作氣,大敗齊軍,最終戰爭的取得勝利。

        長勺之戰為什么弱小的魯國能戰勝強大的齊國?有三點原因:

        1、策略方面。

        戰爭結束后,魯莊公向曹劌詢問是役取勝的原委。曹劌回答說:“用兵打仗所憑恃的是勇氣。第一次擊鼓沖鋒時,士氣最為旺盛;第二次擊鼓沖鋒,士氣就衰退了;等到第三次擊鼓沖鋒,士氣便完全消失了。齊軍三通鼓罷,士氣已完全喪盡,而相反我軍士氣卻正十分旺盛,這時實施反擊,自然就能夠一舉打敗齊軍”。接著曹劌又說明未立即發起追擊的原因:齊國畢竟是實力強大的國家,不可等閑視之,而要謹防其佯敗設伏,以避免己方不應有的失利。后來看到他們的車轍紊亂,望見他們的旌旗歪斜,這才大膽地建議實施戰場追擊。這就是“一鼓作氣,再而衰,三而竭”的來源。

        2、魯莊公方面。長勺戰前,魯軍由于干時的失敗,魯莊公既能作復仇雪恥的戰爭準備,又能破例接待既無官職、又無名望的曹劌,并能開誠布公地和他討論戰勝敵人的戰略,這是難能可貴的。戰斗中又按照曹劌的意見,掌握有利于反攻和追擊的時機,從而獲得了勝利。

        3、曹劌方面。從曹劌戰前決策、戰場指揮和戰后分析的諸多言行里,可以看到魯軍取得長勺之戰的勝利是有其必然性。魯國統治者在戰前進行了“取信于民”的政治準備,為展開軍事行動創造了有利的條件。在作戰中,曹劌正確的作戰指揮, 后發制人、敵疲我打、持重相敵的積極防御、適時反擊的方針,正確地選擇戰場,審時度勢,把握住反攻和追擊的時機,從而牢牢地掌握了戰爭的主動權,擊潰齊國。長勺之戰的勝利,曹劌功不可沒。

        長勺之戰是齊桓公爭霸史上一次少有的挫折,也是魯齊長期斗爭中魯國的一次罕見的勝利。長勺之戰是以少勝多戰役中的經典,不僅給之后的戰役作出了典范,也給后世留下了寶貴的精神財富。

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