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      太監和宮女對食是什么意思

      時間:2019-01-18 15:00:21 編輯:中國歷史
      導讀: 對食是什么意思?太監和宮女對食是什么意思?對食原義是搭伙共食之意,指宮女和宮女之間,或者太監和宮女之間結為伴侶,搭伙共食.太監和宮女對食實際是指太監和宮女假扮夫妻,結成臨時伴侶,以

        古代皇帝后宮佳麗三千,宮廷中的太監和宮女數量非常之多,他們長期服侍皇帝和妃子,看多了皇帝妃子之間歡好的場面,心中難免會有些心癢難耐。太監無妻,宮女無夫,這就有了太監和宮女對食。那么,太監和宮女對食是什么意思呢?

        對食,原義是搭伙共食之意,指宮女和宮女之間,或者太監和宮女之間結為伴侶,搭伙共食。太監和宮女對食實際是指太監和宮女假扮夫妻,結成臨時伴侶,以此互相打發深宮寂寞。對食一詞最早出現在漢代,從這一稱呼來看,可能是太監和宮女在一起吃飯,還不含有共寢之意。隋唐五代時期的《宮詞》記載:莫怪宮人夸對食,尚衣多半狀元郎。這反映出此時宮廷中已有對食現象。

        到了明朝,這股風氣最盛,因為明朝末年十萬太監九千宮女,這么多太監和宮女待在一起,太監和宮女對食的風氣相當普遍,甚至一個宮女入宮很久都無對食,會被同伴嘲笑為“棄物”。一旦太監和宮女兩情相悅,人們還會熱心撮合。說到底還是因為,低級宦官無力娶妻納妾,宮女很少有機會被皇上臨幸,太監和宮女就只好自尋安慰,所謂“宮掖之中,怨曠無聊,解饞止渴,出此下策耳。”

      太監和宮女對食是什么意思

        中國歷史上最有名的太監和宮女對食,恐怕就是明朝魏忠賢與明熹宗的奶媽——客氏。魏忠賢和客氏沆瀣一氣,把持朝政,客氏在床上迷惑皇帝,魏忠賢在外獨攬大權,當時被人們稱為客魏。

        明朝太監和宮女之間除了對食,又有“菜戶”之稱。對食可以是太監和宮女之間,也可以是宮女和宮女之間。而“菜戶”是明代時候的用法,意思是做菜的人,其實也可以說是太監和宮女一起做飯吃飯的意思。明朝初年,朱元璋對太監和宮女對食的行為深惡痛絕,并且嚴加取締,對娶妻成家的太監更是處以十分殘酷的剝皮之刑。不過自永樂而后,太監的地位上升,這一禁令也被取消。史書記載:“宮人無子者,各擇內監為侶,謂菜戶。其財產相通如一家,相愛如夫婦。既而嬪妃以下,亦頗有之,雖天子亦不之禁,以其宦者,不之嫌也。”大致類似的史料也見于野史。

        據《萬歷野獲編》所載,最初因值房太監和司房宮女經常接觸,時間一長就產生感情。太監以此為基礎,往往主動替宮女采辦衣食、首飾以及日用雜物,以表達追慕之情。宮女如果相中此太監,就可結成伴侶。菜戶在明代宮中是公然允許的,即使是皇帝、皇后有時也會問宦官“汝菜戶為誰?”宦官只據實回答即可。太監和宮女成為“菜戶”后,唱隨往還,形如夫妻。太監對所愛的宮女固然是任勞任怨,聽憑驅使,宮女也會心疼宦官,不讓他干太多的活兒,而是支使別的宦官去干。宮中有些地位低賤、相貌丑陋且年齡較大的太監知道不可能被宮女看上,便甘心做菜戶之仆役,為其執炊、搬運、漿洗,宮女每月付給他們一定的銀兩。在這種情況下,一些善烹飪的太監便成為追逐的對象,所得的報酬也較多,最多的一月可賺到四五兩銀子。

      太監和宮女對食是什么意思

        結為“菜戶”的宮女、宦官,多在花前月下彼此盟誓,終生彼此相愛,不再與別人發生感情。宦官如果發現他所愛的宮女移情別戀,往往萬分痛苦,但不會對宮女如何,卻常常與其情敵發生尖銳的沖突。萬歷年間鄭貴妃宮中的宮女吳氏,曾和宦官宋保相愛,后來又移情于宦官張進朝。宋保不勝憤怒,終至萬念俱灰,出宮削發為僧,一去不返。宮中的宦官對宋保評價極高。如吳氏移情別戀的情形在明宮中較為少見,宮女和宦官結為“菜戶”后大多能終身相守,并且彼此都以守節相尚。如果其中一方死去,另一方則終身不再選配。《萬歷野獲編》曾記載,有一個讀書人寓居于城外寺廟中,見寺中有一室平日緊鎖,甚覺奇怪。趁寺廟中人打掃的機會,他進去看了一下,竟發現里面全是宮中宦官奉祀的已亡宮女的牌位。牌位上都寫有宮女的姓名。寺廟中人告訴這位讀書人,每逢宮女的忌日,與其結為菜戶的宦官便會前來致祭,其悲傷號慟,情逾尋常夫妻。

        太監和宮女對食在明朝很流行,但到了清朝就少多了。為什么呢?因為清朝的太監和宮女數量很少,太監不奉旨是不能出宮的,而清朝宮女在滿28歲是可以出宮嫁人的,不需要繼續呆在宮中,當然也可以選擇留下。清宮劇《甄嬛傳》有這樣一個情節:槿汐為促成甄嬛回宮,甘愿自我犧牲,入宮找到皇帝身邊大太監蘇培盛,作其“對食”妻子。而在以往的朝代是沒有的,宮女必須老死宮中。所以宮女就愿意和太監對食,結成假夫妻。

      太監和宮女對食是什么意思

        太監和宮女都是宮中的奴才,長期幽禁于皇宮中,心里難免寂寞,兩個一起對食,搭個伙過日子,做名義上的夫妻,也能相互有個照應,排除深宮寂寞。特別是太監,本來生理上就受到了傷害,在心里上給自己找個妻子,也不枉自己在世上走一遭。他們之間或沒有真正的愛情,但一定是相互有感情的。

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